Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2019, Page: 1-6
Cardiovascular Diseases and the Common Risk Factors Presented by Patients at Kitwe Teaching Hospital
Mwanza Josphat, Department of Public Health, Micheal Chilufya Sata School of Medicine, Copperbelt University, Ndola, Zambia
Sichilima Matafwali Alfred, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Copperbelt University, Kitwe, Zambia
Received: Oct. 23, 2018;       Accepted: May 7, 2019;       Published: Jun. 5, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.rs.20190401.11      View  18      Downloads  13
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, such as cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney and peripheral arterial diseases. CVDs are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Zambia. A case-control study was conducted among 74 patients suffering from cardiovascular disease (CVD) at Kitwe Teaching Hospital (KTH) and 74 controls (patients without CVD). All participants completed a questionnaire regarding socio-demographics, risk factors of CVD and Knowledge based questions of CVD. Chi-square test was used to determine significant associations and a result yielding a p value of less than 5% was considered statistically significant. Independent factors associated with development of CVD were established using a Binary Logistic Regression. Unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. The independent risk factors which were significantly associated with the development of CVD were hypertension (OR 59.143, 95% CI 20.122-173.833; AOR 97.289, 95% CI 24.479 -386.662), diabetes mellitus (OR 3.725, 95% CI 1.722 – 8.057; AOR 6.033, 95% CI 1.630 -22.332), family history (OR 2.504, 95% CI 1.242-5.050; AOR 0.862, 95% CI 0.244 -3.041), smoking (OR 1.587, 95% CI 0.731-3.448; AOR 0.746, 95% CI 0.164 -3.403), alcohol consumption (OR 1.387, 95% CI 0.725 -2.654; AOR 3.392, 95% CI 0.833 – 13.823), high blood cholesterol (OR 4.364, 95% CI 0.894 – 21.293; AOR 4.482, 95% CI 0.242- 82.888) and increased age (P value: 0.039). Three factor were significantly associated with reduced risk of developing CVD. These were physical activity (OR 0.575, 95% CI 0.287-1.150; AOR 1.849, 95% CI 0.507 – 6.751), balanced diet (OR 0.890, 95% CI 0.456 – 2.195; AOR 1.451, 95% CI 0.404 – 5.214) and regular weight check and control (OR 0.897, 95% CI 0.471 – 1.710; AOR 0.593, 95% CI 0.177 – 1.990). Interventions such as proper control of hypertension and diabetes pharmacologically or non – pharmacologically, as well as providing health education on life style risk factors that are associated with CVD may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to the disease.
Kitwe Teaching Hospital, Cardiovascular Disease, Non-Communicable Disease
To cite this article
Mwanza Josphat, Sichilima Matafwali Alfred, Cardiovascular Diseases and the Common Risk Factors Presented by Patients at Kitwe Teaching Hospital, Rehabilitation Science. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2019, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.11648/j.rs.20190401.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ministry of Health (2012). Zambian Strategic Plan 2013-2016: NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS.
Mulenga M. M (2016). Government’s Health Policy Response to Non- Communicable Diseases in Zambia. The University of Zambia: School of Medicine. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Public Health – Health Policy and Management.
Siziya S, Rudatsikira E, Babaniyi O, Songolo P, Mulenga D, et al. (2012) Prevalence and Correlates of Hypertension among Adults Aged 25 Years or Older in a Mining Town of Kitwe, Zambia. J Hypertens 1:105. doi: 10.4172/2167-1095.1000105.
Al-Nafisi. H (2017). Knowledge of Cardiovascular Disease and its Risk Factors among the Community in Kuwait. MedCrave Group LLC
Adhikari N, Sapakota KP, Adhikari S (2018). Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) Risk Attitude and Knowledge Level of Major Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among 15-19 Years Eleventh and Twelfth-Grade Students of Lekhnath Municipality. J Community Med Health Educ 8: 584. doi: 10.4172/2161-0711.1000584
Linda M. Smith (2015). Educational Intervention: Effects on Heart Disease Risk Factor Knowledge Among African Americans. Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies Collection at ScholarWorks, Walden University.
Joel Negin, Robert Cumming, Sarah Stewart, et al (2011), Risk Factors for Non-communicable diseases in older adults in rural Africa, Tropical Medicine International Health, vol 16, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02739. x
Huda Nimer Mohammad Lahham (2009). Cardiovascular Diseases and Risk Factors Among Diabetic Patients in Nablus District, West Bank, Palestine: case-control study. Thesis submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master in Public Health, Faculty of Graduate Studies, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.
Boateng D, Wekesah F, Browne JL, Agyemang C, Agyei-Baffour P, Aikins Ad-G, et al. (2017) Knowledge and awareness of and perception towards cardiovascular disease risk in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. PLoS ONE 12 (12): e0189264. (Document was retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0189264 on 28th April, 2018).
Ministry of Health (2016). ZAMBIA NATIONAL HEALTH STRATEGIC PLAN 2017 – 2021
Kapoor. R, Vyas. S, Patel. P, Mehta. H, Mehta. P, Modi. J, and Nair. S (2013). A case-control study of risk factors for ischemic heart disease in patients attending tertiary care hospitals in India. South East Asia Journal of Public Health 2013; 3 (1): 57-60.
El-Hajj. M, Salameh. P, Rachidi. S, Al-Hajje. A, Lahoud. N and Hosseini. H (2018). Stroke risk factors: a hospital-based case–control study in Lebanon. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine Open; 8 (6) 1–10, DOI: 10.1177/2054270417713692.
Ram RV, Trivedi AV (2012). Behavioural risk factors of coronary artery disease: A paired matched case control study. J Cardiovasc Dis Res 2012; 3: 212-7.
Thanh Chung Nguyen (2016). A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Vietnam. Thesis presented for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Curtin University.
Schweigman K., Eichner J., Welty K. T., and Zhang Y (2006). Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Awareness in American Indian Communities: The Strong Heart Study. Center for American Indian Health Research, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Muula S. A, Rudatsikira. M, Babaniyi. O, Songolo. P, Mulenga. D and Siziya S. (2012). Factors Associated with High Cholesterol levels in Lusaka, Zambia: A Community-Based Study. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 39, No. 4 (2012).
Bhawana D. and Neetu S. (2015). Public knowledge of cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors among early adulthood: A review. International Journal of Applied Research 2015; 1 (12): 658-660. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299469397 (website accessed on 28th April, 2018).
Browse journals by subject